Silicium (Si)

Propriétés générales

Symbole Si
Numéro atomique 14
Masse atomique 28.0855
Groupe
14 (Famille du carbone)
IVB (IUPAC), IVA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Semiconductor, Stable, Natural, Metalloid
Période 3
Bloc p

Propriétés physiques

Densité 2.33 g/cm3
Volume atomique 12.1 cm3/mole
Rayon atomique 1.32 angstroms
Rayon de covalence 111 pm
Crust Abundance 27%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Gray

Énergie

Électronégativité 1.9 (Échelle de Pauling)
Affinité électronique 133.6 kJ/mol
Énergie de première 780 kJ/mol
2e Ionization Energy 1577.1 kJ/mol
3e Ionization Energy 3231.6 kJ/mol
4e Ionization Energy 4355.5 kJ/mol
5e Ionization Energy 16091 kJ/mol
6e Ionization Energy 19805 kJ/mol
7e Ionization Energy 23780 kJ/mol
8e Ionization Energy 29287 kJ/mol
9e Ionization Energy 33878 kJ/mol
10e Ionization Energy 38726 kJ/mol
11e Ionization Energy 45962 kJ/mol
12e Ionization Energy 50502 kJ/mol
13e Ionization Energy 235196 kJ/mol
14e Ionization Energy 257923 kJ/mol
Capacité thermique 0.7 J g−1 K−1
Conductivité thermique 148.0 W·m−1·K−1

Électrons et Oxydation

États d’oxydation ±4
Électrons par couche 2 8 4
Configuration électronique [Ne] 3s2 3p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Diagrammes d’orbitales
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿ 
↿ 
 
3d
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactif Non

Média

Modèle planétaire de Bohr de Silicium (Si)
Représentation de Lewis de Silicium (Si)
Description
Amorphous form is brown power; crystalline form has gray metallic appearance. Seventh most abundant element in the universe. Second most plentiful element in the earths crust.
Uses
Used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.
Sources
Makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.
Pronounciation (English)
SIL-i-ken

Traductions

Afrikaans Silikon (Kiesel †)
Aragonese Silizio
العربية سيلكون
Armãneashte Silitsiumu
asturianu Siliciu
azərbaycan dili Silisium
български Силиций
বাংলা সিলিকন
brezhoneg Silisiom
bosanski Silicij[um]
Byelorussian Крэмній
Cebuano Siliko
čeština Křemík
Chuvash Кремни
Cymraeg Silici
dansk Silicium
Deutsch Silizium
Ελληνικά Πυριτιο
English Silicon
esperanto Silicio
español Silicio
eesti Räni
euskara Silizioa
فارسی سیلیسیم
suomi Pii
føroyskt Silicium
français Silicium
furlan Silici
West-Frysk Silisium
Gaeilge Sileacón
Gàidhlig Sileacon
galego Silicio
ગુજરાતી સિલિકોન
Gaelg Shillagon
Hakka Chinese Si̍t (矽)
עברית צורן
हिन्दी सिलिकॉन
hrvatski Silicij
magyar Szilícium
հայերեն Սիլիցիում
Indonesia Silikon
íslenska Kísill
italiano Silicio
日本語 ヶィ素
ქართული სიცილიუმი
کٲشُر Krzém
қазақ тілі Кремний
한국어 규소
Kurdish Silisyum
Komi Кремний
kernewek Sylycon
кыргызча Кремний
Latin Silicium
Lëtzebuergesch Silizium
Lombard Silíci
lingála Siliki
lietuvių Silicis
latviešu Silīcijs
Mari Кремний
Maori Takawai
македонски Силициум
മലയാളം സിലിക്കണ്‍
монгол Цахиур
Мокшан Ктаем
Bahasa Melayu Silikon
Malti Silikon, ²Siliċju
Nahuatl Tecpatli
Nederlands Silicium, Kiezel†
norsk Silisium
Occitan Silici
ирон Кремний
polski Krzem
português Silício
Runasimi Ullayayaq, ²Silisyu
română Siliciu
русский Кремний
slovenčina Kremík
slovenščina Silicij
Samoan Silisimi
Samogitian Sėlėcis
shqip Silicium
српски Силицијум
Southern Sotho Silikone
svenska Kisel
Kiswahili Silikoni
தமிழ் சிலிக்கன்
Tajik Силитсий
ไทย ซิลิคอน
Türkçe Silisyum
ئۇيغۇرچە سىلىتسىي
українська Кремній
o‘zbek Kremniy
Tiếng Việt Silic
Võro Räni
中文

Histoire

Découvert en
1824
Découvert par
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Découvert à/au/dans
Sweden
Étymologie
From the Latin word "silicis" meaning "flint"