Potassium (K)

Propriétés générales

Symbole K
Numéro atomique 19
Masse atomique 39.0983
Groupe
1 (Métaux alcalins ou famille de l’hydrogène/ famille du lithium)
IA (IUPAC), IA (CAS)
Solid, Conductor, Alkali Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Période 4
Bloc s

Propriétés physiques

Densité 0.86 g/cm3
Volume atomique 45.3 cm3/mole
Rayon atomique 2.35 angstroms
Rayon de covalence 196 pm
Crust Abundance 1.5%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Body centered
Color Silver

Énergie

Électronégativité 0.8 (Échelle de Pauling)
Affinité électronique 48.4 kJ/mol
Énergie de première 419 kJ/mol
2e Ionization Energy 3052 kJ/mol
3e Ionization Energy 4420 kJ/mol
4e Ionization Energy 5877 kJ/mol
5e Ionization Energy 7975 kJ/mol
6e Ionization Energy 9590 kJ/mol
7e Ionization Energy 11343 kJ/mol
8e Ionization Energy 14944 kJ/mol
9e Ionization Energy 16963.7 kJ/mol
10e Ionization Energy 48610 kJ/mol
11e Ionization Energy 54490 kJ/mol
12e Ionization Energy 60730 kJ/mol
13e Ionization Energy 68950 kJ/mol
14e Ionization Energy 75900 kJ/mol
15e Ionization Energy 83080 kJ/mol
16e Ionization Energy 93400 kJ/mol
17e Ionization Energy 99710 kJ/mol
18e Ionization Energy 444880 kJ/mol
19e Ionization Energy 476063 kJ/mol
Capacité thermique 0.757 J g−1 K−1
Conductivité thermique 102.5 W·m−1·K−1

Électrons et Oxydation

États d’oxydation 1
Électrons par couche 2 8 8 1
Configuration électronique [Ar] 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
Diagrammes d’orbitales
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
 
 
 
 
 
4s
↿ 
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactif Non

Média

Modèle planétaire de Bohr de Potassium (K)
Représentation de Lewis de Potassium (K)
Description
Soft, waxy, silver-white metal. Eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust (20,900 ppm). Occurs only in compounds.
Uses
Used as potash in making glass & soap. Also as saltpeter, potassium nitrate (KNO3) to make explosives and to color fireworks in mauve. Formerly called kalium (K). Vital to function of nerve and muscle tissures.
Sources
Found in minerals like carnallite [(KMgCl3).6H2O] & sylvite (potassium chloride, KCL). Pure metal is produced by the reaction of hot potassium chloride and sodium vapors in a special retort.
Pronounciation (English)
pe-TASS-i-em

Traductions

Afrikaans Kalium
Aragonese Potasio
العربية بوتاسيوم
Armãneashte Caliumu
asturianu Potasiu
azərbaycan dili Kalium
български Калий
বাংলা পটাসিয়াম
brezhoneg Potasiom
bosanski Kalij[um]
Byelorussian Калій
Cebuano Potasio
čeština Draslík
Chuvash Кали
Cymraeg Potassi
dansk Kalium
Deutsch Kalium
Ελληνικά Καλιο
English Potassium
esperanto Kalio
español Potasio
eesti Kaalium
euskara Potasioa
فارسی پتاسیم
suomi Kalium
føroyskt Kalium
français Potassium
furlan Potassi
West-Frysk Kalium
Gaeilge Potaisiam
Gàidhlig Potaisiam
galego Potasio
ગુજરાતી પોટૅશિયમનો
Gaelg Potashum
Hakka Chinese Kap (鉀)
עברית אשלגן
हिन्दी पोटैशियम
hrvatski Kalij
magyar Kálium
հայերեն Կալիում
Indonesia Kalium
íslenska Kalín
italiano Potassio
日本語 カリウム
ქართული კალიუმი
کٲشُر Kali
қазақ тілі Калий
한국어 칼륨, 2포타슘
Kurdish Qelye
Komi Калий
kernewek Calyum
кыргызча Калий
Latin Kalium
Lëtzebuergesch Kalium
Lombard Putàss
lingála Potasu
lietuvių Kalis
latviešu Kālijs
Mari Калий
Maori Konurehu
македонски Калиум
മലയാളം പൊട്ടാസ്യം
монгол Кали
Мокшан Кали
Bahasa Melayu Kalium
Malti Potassju[m]
Nahuatl Potasio
Nederlands Kalium
norsk Kalium
Occitan Potassi
ирон Калий
polski Potas
português Potássio
Runasimi Kalyu
română Potasiu, ²Kaliu
русский Калий
slovenčina Draslík
slovenščina Kalij
Samoan Kalimi
Samogitian Kalis
shqip Kalium
српски Калијум
Southern Sotho Potassiamo
svenska Kalium
Kiswahili Kali
தமிழ் பொட்டாசியம்
Tajik Калий
ไทย โพแทสเซียม
Türkçe Potasyum
ئۇيغۇرچە كالىي
українська Калій
o‘zbek Kaliy
Tiếng Việt Kali
Võro Kaalium
中文

Histoire

Découvert en
1807
Découvert par
Sir Humphrey Davy
Découvert à/au/dans
England
Étymologie
From the English word "potash" (pot ashes) and the Arabic word "qali" meaning alkali (the origin of the symbol K comes from the Latin word "kalium")